Angioplasty is the procedure of Cardiology which implies the alteration of narrowed or blocked vascular lumen. This blockage is caused due to atherosclerosis. The term angioplasty is derived from the words Angio, which means vessel and plasticos which means fit for molding. This technique was first used in 1977. This procedure has improved with time and now this is performed with the help of advanced equipments stents and lazer.
An empty and collapsed balloon is tied on a guide wire. This is known as a balloon catheter. It is passed into the narrowed locations or the vessel which is blocked. Then it is inflated to a fixed size using water pressures around 75 to 500 times normal blood pressure. The balloon crushes the fat deposits. Thus, opening up the blood vessel to improved flow. The balloon is then collapsed and withdrawn.
This procedure takes about two hours. During the process the patient is usually kept awake.
Risks involved in this method are:
- Recurrence of angina
- Uneasiness in the chest,
- Bleeding from the point of insertion which is usually the groin,
- Chances of the formation of haematoma
- Patients with kidney disorders may face problems in the proper functioning of the kidneys And the most common hazards are
- Stent Restenosis
- Increase of heart attack
- Angioplasty done soon after a myocardial infarction may cause stroke.
Very rare cases of allergic reaction due to the contrast dye is seen.